PRE MENSTRUAL SYNDROME AND ITS PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS
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The life cycle of a living organism is primarily guided by the internal hormonal milieu but it is mostly manifested in women due to the cyclicity with which their entire life, from menarche to pregnancy to menopause goes through. The monthly menstrual cycle is a neuro endocrine processes and the physiological as well as psychological changes during the various phases of menstrual cycle range from imperceptible to highly disruptive.
The pre menstrual syndrome is diagnosed when certain physiological and psychological changes Occur In A Predictable Pattern In 1-2 Weeks Period Before Start Of Menstruation.
Physical Signs and Symptoms of Pre Menstrual Syndrome
- Weight gain related to fluid retention
- Abdominal bloating
- Breast tenderness
- Exacerbation of acne
- Disturbed bowel movement (constipation/diarrhoea)
- Muscle aches
Psychological Symptoms of Pre Menstrual Syndrome
- Stress or anxiety
- Crying spells
- Depressed mood
- Mood swings and irritability or anger
- Appetite changes and food cravings
- Trouble falling asleep (insomnia)
- Social withdrawal
- Poor concentration
What is of Pre Menstrual Syndrome?
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder is largely a state of emotional instability and sadness that occurs prior to menstruation. The risk factors include history of mood disorder, emotionally unstable personality, family history of depression or mood disorder and severe or chronic stress. Altered responses of neuro endocrine systems to gonadal hormone’s fluctuations during the menstrual cycle, as well as an increased sensitivity to changes in gonadal hormones may contribute to menstrual related symptoms in vulnerable women.
If symptoms of PMS are intense or disrupt normal functioning, professional help should be sought.
Follow the points given below if you are suffering from Pre Menstrual Syndrome
- Make a symptom chart along with the dates of menstruation.
- Note any exacerbating or relieving factors.
- Observe seasonal variation.
Treatment for Pre Menstrual Syndrome
- Management depends on predominant symptoms.
- Life style modifications are effective for mild symptoms.
- Exercise and balanced diet helps maintain energy levels and reduce gastric symptoms.
- Regular stress relieving activities ensure better mood state.
- Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is helpful in mild to moderate mood symptoms.
- Antidepressants may be needed in moderate to severe cases of mood disorders.